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如何提高雅思写作词汇能力

来源:朗阁教育19-01-29编辑:yawen0人看过

在雅思写作的评分标准中,对于7分的词汇定义是这样的 “Uses a sufficient range of vocabulary to allow some flexibility and precision”。朗阁海外考试研究中心将从以下三个方面 “a sufficient range of vocabulary”; “flexibility”; “precision” 逐一为广大考生分析如何针对性地提高写作的词汇能力。

在雅思写作的评分标准中,对于7分的词汇定义是这样的 “Uses a sufficient range of vocabulary to allow some flexibility and precision”。朗阁海外考试研究中心将从以下三个方面 “a sufficient range of vocabulary”; “flexibility”; “precision” 逐一为广大考生分析如何针对性地提高写作的词汇能力。

 

a sufficient range of vocabulary 足够丰富的词汇

雅思大作文的词汇量一直是很多考生的心病,尤其对于目标分数7分及以上的同学。很多同学也会在考前花费大量的时间和精力背诵词汇,但效果却不尽如人意。很多考生反映:在考场上,考前所背的词汇很少用到或者有一些词考场上根本来不及反应,但考试之后却又突然想起。朗阁海外考试研究中心通过对大量学生习作的总结,发现考生在词汇丰富度上的欠缺主要在于题词汇的不足。什么是题词汇呢?众所周知,雅思大作文分为若干题,例如环境、政府、犯罪、文化等。而对于考生来说,急需提高的是所给作文题目中题相关的表达。换句话讲,就是考察考生能否使用丰富的与题相干的词组来完成一篇作文。

例如:2011.05.07 考题

Environmental problem is too big for individual countries and individual people to address. In other words, we have reached the stage where the only way to protect the environment is at an international level.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

那么如果在讨论Individual people solve environmental problems 使用以下词组:

减少不可循环物品的使用minimize the use of non-recyclable items

减少使用一次性用品 reduce the consumption of disposable products

一次性筷子和饭盒饭盒disposable chopsticks and lunch boxes

减少不可降解的垃圾的数量到最低

the amount of non-biodegradable waste will be reduced to the minimum

.....

这些词组很好的体现了考生的词汇丰富性。那么考生应如何去扩充词汇的丰富性呢?朗阁海外考试研究中心建议考生,在备考雅思写作时,将大作文按话题进行分类,通过分析同一话题范围内的多篇范文,去整理围绕该话题的相关表达,继而采用意群记忆的方法,将相同的话题的表达,尤其是相关词组进行关联记忆,从而可以使考生在面对这一话题时能有丰富的语言表达。

例如: 围绕犯罪类话题,可以commit a crime; violate laws; break laws; curb crimes; an escaping criminal; escape punishment; prevent crime; combat crime; pay a fine; put into jail; send to prison等进行一起记忆,从而提高写作时词汇表达的丰富性。

 

flexibility 灵活性

flexibility(灵活性)的最重要的一项要求就是同义词的替换,这就要求考生在背诵相关单词时,不光要掌握一个单词或词组,还需要掌握其所对应的同义词或词组,这样在文中需要重复表达同样意思时,可以进行有效的替换,体现用词的灵活多变。然而许多烤鸭在备考时往往过多的去背诵常规同义词,例如 important 换成 indispensable; vital; essential; critical,而忽视了最重要的一项同义词替换,即主题内容的同义替换,小作文和大作文同样需进行主题内容表达的替换.

例如:2016.08.27的小作文

The chart below shows the percentage of boys and girls aged 5-14 who took part in cultural activities and sports in Australia in 2003.

 图片1.png

题中所讨论的是participate in activities and sports,那么考生在写作时,应做到灵活的替换,不能一直使用 boys/girls who participate in...., 可进行同义替换表达,如 boys are more interested in...;... be keen on...; ...participants in ...; ...prefer to do...; ...take part in...等,这样可以体现考生在用词上的灵活性。

再如,在雅思小作文考试中经常出现按不同年龄段进行的划分,那么不同年龄段的表达应如何去进行替换表达呢?笔者给出以下几种可参考的写法:

● Students who are 17-19 years old

Those (aged 20-24) like football.

● Children between 0 and 14

● People from 15 to 46 (years old)

● People aged from 15 to 46

● The children (0-14)

The 15-46 age group

● In the first age group (16 to 24)

● In the group of 55 and above

● People of 55 and over

15-46-year-olds

● People in their forties 

大作文也是同样的道理,主题内容的同义替换必不可少

例如:2013.02.16的雅思考题

Some people think lawbreakers should be sent to prison, while others think there are some alternatives. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

在题目中出现的lawbreakers意为 犯罪分子,那么考生在作文写作中不能一直使用 lawbreakers 来表达, 而需要做一些同义替换,如 perpetrator, outlaw, offender, criminal 等,这些主题词汇的替换往往使考生所忽略的,所以朗阁海外考试研究中心建议广大考生在备考写作时,应重点以旧题范文为参考,去整理一篇范文中主题内容的同义表达

 

precision 准确性

准确性,顾名思义是意思表达的准确地道。因为大部分考生都不是native speaker,所以对于考生而言要做到词汇的地道表达其实是比较困难的。鉴于此,朗阁海外考试研究中心建议广大考生以国外原版的新闻报道,学术论文甚至杂志书籍作为学习材料,通过阅读,去积累地道的表达方法。

例如:以下段落节选自BBC News

China is stepping up efforts to reduce the worst effects of environmental

Pollution caused by its breakneck economic expansion. The State Council has

announced new measures to boost the growth of the environmental

technology protection sector. Marcus Herberthas more. “The Chinese

government is alarmed by recent social unrest caused by environmental disasters, such as chronic urban smog, or thousands of rotting pig carcasses

in water supplying the city of Shanghai. Now, the State Council has

announced that it will accelerate an existing plan to ensure growth of the

environmental protection industry by 15% annually by 2015. Over the next

two years, it will pay subsidies worth more than $700bn, and eligible foreign, as well as domestic, companies will receive tax breaks.”

 

例如其中的词组breakneck economic expansion就是非常地道的表达,既表达了经济的快速发展,又能体现这样的发展是很危险的,而往往考生在表达经济发展时,更多的使用的时economic development, 所以通过阅读地道的英文材料,能很好的改善用词。建议考生可阅读像 《The Economist》《BBC News》《New Scientist这类的英文材料,去积累地道的英文表达,从而提高语言的准确性。

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