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[雅思培训]雅思写作Task 2提纲写作方式

来源:朗阁教育15-11-30编辑:朗阁小编0人看过

多数考生在考场上会认为列提纲是多此一举:题目囫囵吞枣读完后,想到哪里就写到哪里。其分数结果可想而知!

 

朗阁海外考试研究中心  唐艳

 

在雅思考试中,很多考生会认为雅思写作列提纲多此一举。朗阁雅思培训指出这是一个严重的误区,并就此探讨如何真正有效地列好提纲为雅思写作提分。

 

误区(一)

多数考生在考场上会认为列提纲是多此一举:题目囫囵吞枣读完后,想到哪里就写到哪里。其分数结果可想而知!

 

误区(二)

即便是有时间列出提纲,在书写时也不是完全用到它,觉得有点浪费时间去列!

 

事实上有以上想法的考生,那是由于未真正品尝到这样做的好处。我想其中的一个原因是不是不知道该怎样列出个好且有效的提纲呢?

 

关键词(一)了解题目的特点再列提纲

 

请看以下的两个题目:

1.    In many countries, traditional foods are being replaced by international foods. This is having a negative effect on both families and societies. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

2.    Nowadays, advertising is having an increasing influence on our lives. Some people think that the positive effects outweigh the negative effects. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

大家可以发现在真正考题的前面都有一小段背景:In many countries, traditional foods are being replaced by international foods. / Nowadays, advertising is having an increasing influence on our lives. 殊不知这样的背景对于我们理出提纲起到了很大的作用:考生要想写出对于家庭和社会的消极影响,必须知道哪些是traditional foods/ international foods。考生利用自己的知识面可以列出以下思路:

 

Traditional foods:

noodles/ rice-based dishes/ legume-based dishes/ pork-based dishes/ poultry-based dishes/ vegetable-based dishes/ grain-based dishes

 

International foods:

McDonald’s (chicken Mc nuggets)/ KFC (poultry feed scandals)/ subway (sandwiches + cookies)/ Pizza Hut/ Starbucks/ Burger King/ PaPa John

 

马上思路如涌泉般:

Negative effects on family:

1.   physical fitness: fried/ high fat/ sugar/ calories/ cholesterol/ be detrimental to sb.;对比traditional foods: be rich in nutrition/ vitamin

2.   prepare for the food ingredient: fast pace of life/ devoid of time communication;对比traditional foods

 

同理:

Negative impact on society:

loss of culture/ Chinese traditional foods: Cantonese dish/ Huaiyang cuisine/ Sichuan cuisine/ Shandong cuisine/ treasure

do disservice to local hospitality industry/ catering services: downsize the volume/ due to the proliferation in fast food outlet/ local/ native/ indigenous fast food chain/ win more customers by cutting prices

 

对于广告的那个题目也可以用同样的方法思维:在背景中有些重要的词组:our lives。首先这个题目突破的关键是our lives这个词出来,advertising的种类立刻也就迎刃而解了。请看背景中our lives所体现的方面:

 

Shopping: the latest consumer goods (clothing/ diet/ house-purchase/ digital products/ toys and baby stuff/ sports and recreational equipment)

Trip/ going out/ getting around: traveling bags (climbing rucksacks)/ tourism packages/ tour package

Job hunting/ to apply for a job/ job application/ leaflet/ recruitment advertising/ salary/ earnings/ welfare/ material benefits (annual leave/ annual vacation)/ continuation education

School life: school selection/ curriculum provision/outstanding teacher resources/ exchange student program

Public service advertising: environmental prevention/ show respect for others/ show filial piety towards senior groups/ altruism (sacrifice one’s own interests for others)/ be dedicated to society/ cherish life/ stay away from drugs/ observe law and discipline/ Traffic codes/ Marriage Act

 

有了以上思路,所以广告的积极方面就好想的多了:思路一:offer too much practical information;思路二:educational function。

 

以同样的方式列出广告给我们的生活带来的消极方面:

 

Exaggerated advertising:

Healthy products: a very good panacea for all kinds of illness: allergy/ asthma/ cataract/ stroke/ cardiovascular disease/ diabetes/ longevity effect/ live longer

Cosmetics: anti-aging/ help slow down aging/ postpone the aging/ plant extract/ minimizing serum/ day cream/ night cream

Well-paid/ easy task/ do not need to travel/ excellent working environment

 

关键词(二)题目中没有背景信息

 

比如这两个题目:

1.    Some people argue that the government should spend more money on public service than on arts. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

2.    Traveling by air is much cheaper and more convenient than before, but it also brings some environmental problems. Discuss both views and give your opinions.

 

很显然,当考生看见这样的考题,只要先利用自己的知识面列出:

Public service: education/ healthcare/ insurance/ public transit

Arts: painting/ sculpture/ statue/ drawing/ action of arts/ calligraphy/ Chinese brush painting/ silk painting/ pencil drawing/ architecture/ sand drawing/ music/ drama (face magic show)/ opera/ film / literature/ photograph/ language

 

思路马上就非常明确了:

主体段落(一)政府的钱的确要在公共服务上花去很多的钱(理由是:1. 提高劳动者素质;2. 给老百姓便利生活)

主体段落(二)政府的钱也要更多地花在艺术上(理由是:1. 保护文化遗产;2. 有利于对人的教育)

 

以同样的方式理解traveling by air那个题目,先要把题目中的这些词列出来,比如说:

Cheaper (Wuxi – Xian: 1410/ 300/ 680)

Local travel

Exotic tour/ Singapore/ Thailand / 4000-8000/ reduce by 2000

Graduates/ workers/ higher school students/ become the biggest beneficiaries

More convenient (more routes/ order the ticket/ mobile phone/ internet)

Guizhou province/ backward/ currently/ more airports

 

考生再列出题目中的 environmental problems: (energy consumption—oil/ noise pollution/ carbon emission)

 

提纲呈现与认真读题的关系

 

针对以上两大类题目的解读,学生们可能知道了相关方法:要想列出优秀的提纲必须利用自己丰富的知识面把题目中重要名词或形容词的内涵展开才能为接下来的思路提供灵感。但是仅仅这些还是不够的。认真地读题并悟出题目的关键才会保证考生顺利想提纲和相关思路:Schools should teach children some academic subjects which will be beneficial to their future careers. Therefore, other subjects such as music and sports are not important. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 如果运用以上推荐的办法,考生们可能在前一句上列提纲是不会有什么差错的,先列出

Future careers:

medical staff/ surgeon/ physician

legal worker/court clerk/chief judge

waiter/ waitress

run online shop/ board game design

miner/ geological exploration

building trades/ urban planning

 

再列出

Academic subjects:

Computer programming/ communication skills (language proficiency)/ medical norms/ legal codes/ hospitality management/ safety issues/ common sense/ architecture

 

但是最后一句话里,考生若是浅显地理解本题目的话,他们可能这样写:

主体段落(一)学校里的确要传授与学生将来有用的学业学科(未来职业迫切需要专业化的知识和工作策略)

主体段落(二)然而,音乐与体育也很重要(学生有可能谈及这两门学科其它方面的重要性)。但是,仔细再研读一下这个考题,就是烤鸭们一定要站在全篇的角度来理解这个考题:无论学校里开设什么学科,要理解为与将来职

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