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[雅思培训]雅思学术类小作文高端写法(二)

来源:朗阁教育14-08-10编辑:朗阁培训小编0人看过

雅思写作7分长久以来一直成为很多考生的写作瓶颈,其中固然有很多客观因素,但是根据笔者这些年带写作班的经验以及阅览无数考官撰写的范文后发现,其实写作从技术角度的确存在很多“高端”写法和使用时的“潜规则”。

    在上一个章节中,朗阁雅思培训中心写作组的系统探讨了折线图主体段的高端写作思路和句型发展方式。在本章节里,我们将继续探讨饼状图主体段的思路和写法。
    饼状图和折线图相比,从思路上来说更多;从词汇角度来说稍复杂些,比如在饼状图里,经常会涉及到扇形面积的描述,因此,我们会使用到“占”这个意思,而常用来表示这个意思的动词和词组有:constitute, comprise, account for, make up和take up;此外,扇形面积还时常会涉及5个常见的分数值,如1/3, 2/3, 1/2, 1/4, 3/4, 当扇形面积在这5个分数值附近时,我们需要使用一些不同的句型来描述。从角度来说,饼图的主体段写作思路一般可以从3方面入手:
一、纵向数据对比的饼图
    先描述面积最大的扇形,然后从大到小排列扇形顺序
    在这种写法中,我们可以首先描写面积最大的扇形,也可以将面积最大的2块扇形面积一起描述。以下我们就来看一个例子:
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below.
•    You should write at least 150 words.
•    You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
 
Food and cars made up the two biggest items of expenditure in both years. Together they comprised over half of household spending. Food accounted for 44% of spending in 1966, but this dropped by two thirds to 14% in 1996. However, the outlay on cars doubled, rising from 23% in 1966 to 45% in 1996. 
    之后的数据排列我们可以按照大到小的扇形面积顺序,也可以以变化幅度较大或者有倍数关系的扇形为先,这种写法更高级。如:
Other areas changed significantly. Spending on eating out doubled, climbing from 7% to 14%. The proportion of salary spent on computers increased dramatically, up from 1% in 1996 to 10% in 1996. However, as computer expenditure rose, the percentage of outlay on books plunged from 6% to 1%.
先描述面积最小的扇形
    朗阁雅思培训中心在此提醒考生,在这种写法中有一个前提,也就是这块扇形最小的面积代表的是“positive”的含义。
以下我们就来看一个例子:
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below.
•    You should write at least 150 words.
•    You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
 
In 1945 only 30% of women completed their secondary education and 1% went on to a first degree. No women had completed post-graduate studies. This situation had changed radically by 1995. In 1995, 90% of women in Someland had completed secondary education and of those, half had graduated from an initial degree and 20% had gone on to postgraduate studies. At the other end of the scale we can see that by 1995 all girls were completing lower secondary, although 10% ended their schooling at this point. This is in stark contrast with 1945 when only 30% of girls completed primary school, 35% had no schooling at all and 35% only completed the third grade. 
    若采用这种写法时,必须注意的是2个饼图在转换时必须有“过渡句”,如第2个下划线的句子,来引导后面的数据。
采用折线图的写法来写饼图
    当饼图的数据按照时间变化时,我们可以将其转换为折线图的方式来安排数据,比如:
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The charts below show the percentage of their food budget the average family spent on restaurant meals in different years. The graph shows the number of meals eaten in fast food restaurants and sit-down restaurants.
You should write at least 150 words.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
 
Over the past 30 years, the average family has dramatically increased the number of meals that they eat at restaurants. The percentage of the family''s food budget spent on restaurant meals steadily climbed. Just 10 percent of the food budget was spent on restaurant meals in 1970, and 15 percent in 1980. That percentage more than doubled in 1990, to 35 percent, and rose again in 2000 to 50 percent.
二、横向数据的对比的饼图或者单个饼图
    针对以上的饼图,朗阁雅思培训中心建议考生采用的写作思路可以是先写总数,一般用简单句来实现;然后再按照扇形面积大小逐一描写。比如:
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below.
•    You should write at least 150 words.
•    You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
 
In the year 2000, Coca-Cola sold a total of 17.1 billion cases of their fizzy drink product worldwide. The largest consumer was North America, where 30.4 per cent of the total volume was purchased. The second largest consumer was Latin America. Europe and Asia purchased 20.5 and 16.4 per cent of the total volume respectively, while Africa and the Middle East remained fairly small consumers at 7 per cent of the total volume of sales.
 
 

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