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[雅思培训]如何有效地扩展段落(一)

来源:朗阁教育14-07-30编辑:朗阁培训小编0人看过

中国烤鸭的雅思写作分数一直以来都不是特别理想。导致这一问题的原因有很多,其中一个重要的原因就是众多考生无法有效的扩展段落。

    中国烤鸭的雅思写作分数一直以来都不是特别理想。导致这一问题的原因有很多,其中一个重要的原因就是众多考生无法有效的扩展段落。在这里,朗阁雅思培训中心的将向考生们介绍几个有效扩展段落的重要因素。
    首先,一个段落必须有一个中心即主题思想。主题思想在雅思考试中主要是通过段落的首句来表达的。这个句子在雅思写作中,我们把它称为主题句。整个段落必须紧扣这个主题,这就是段落的统一性(unity)。其次,一个段落必须有若干扩展句,使主题思想得到充分展开,句子与句子之间环环相扣,这就是完整性。再者,一个段落不是杂乱无章的,而是有机的组合,句子的排列顺序必须合乎逻辑,从一个句子到另一个句子的过渡必须流畅,这就是连贯性。雅思写作四项评分标准中的coherence and cohesion在这里占了较大的比重。
1. 统一性
    一个段落内的各个句子必须从属于一个中心,任何游离于中心思想之外的句子都是不可取的。
请看下例:
Amittedly, 这个地方需要一个与开头衔接的词。There are a lot of evidences showing that the rich-poor gap is increasing with the updating of technology. One of the reasons is that the usage of household appliances is gradually taking the place of labour force, for it is convenient and economical to use the man-made devices compared with employing someone. In this situation, many of the labours who are not skilful and well-educated in other sectors would be paid at lower level for the same work or even lose their jobs. Moreover, the lack of education expenditure in such families leads to the lack of skill and knowledge of their children, so such gap can be hardly eliminated of generations. 本段落里面论据和主题句里提到的evidences不一致,或者说人们的工作技能和其受教育的程度与科技会加大贫富之间的差距有什么关系?
However, parents should not take these as excuses and escape their responsibility. 主题句这样写,就要在段中以解释父母的职责为主线来论述父母对孩子的影响。但是段落的第二句话与主题句或与后续的句意都衔接不连贯。Children may feel more convenient communicating with parents, and accept what they told better. Besides, parents have their own way influencing children. For example, they can encourage children by giving special gift which teachers cannot offer. 卷面上如果这种句子多了,造成偏题或离题,那问题就更严重了。
2. 完整性
    正像我们前面说的那样,一个段落的主题思想靠推展句来实现,如果只有主题句而没有推展句来进一步交待和充实,就不能构成一个完整的段落。同样,虽然有推展句,但主题思想没有得到相对圆满的交待,给读者一种意犹未尽的感觉,这样的段落也不能完成其交际功能。
例如:
Physical work can be a useful form of therapy for a mind in turmoil. Work concentrates your thoughts on a concrete task. Besides, it is more useful to work--you produce something rather than more anxiety or depression.
    本段的主题句是段首句。本段的两个推展句均不能回答主题句中提出的问题。什么是“a mind in turmoil”(心境不平静),Physical work又如何能改变这种情况?为什么它能起therapy的作用?读者得不到明确的答案。
又如:
It is not always true that a good picture is worth a thousand words. Often writing is much clearer than a picture. It is sometimes difficult to figure out what a picture means, but a careful writer can almost always explain it.
    段首句所表达的主题思想是一种看法,必须有具体事例加以验证。上述两个推展句只是在文字上对主题作些解释,整个段落内容空洞,简而不明。如果用一两个具体的例子的话,就可以把主题解释清楚了。比如下段:
It is not always true that a picture is worth a thousand words. Sometimes, pictures are pretty useless things. If you can''t swim and fall in the river and start gulping water, will you be better off to hold up a picture of yourself drowning, or start screaming "Help"?
 
 

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