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雅思大作文写作主体段落如何扩展(二)

来源:朗阁教育14-06-25编辑:朗阁培训小编0人看过

雅思大作文段落扩展有很多方法,比如列举法、举例法、对比法、因果法、让步法、定义法、类比法等,但是在实际运用的时候很多考生的局限性很强,从而限制了分数的进一步提高。

    在上一章节中我们已经系统介绍了举例法和因果法的使用要领,在接下来的章节中,朗阁雅思培训中心写作组的将和大家继续探讨其余主体段的扩展方式:
三、对比论述法
对比论述法是通过对2个以上事物或者人物的对比对论点加以说明,对比法常用的连接词有:likewise, similarly, at the same time, in contrast, nevertheless, still, instead, rather, on the contrary, after all, unlike, while, whilst等,有时候可以用条件状语从句来进行对比,也可以用介宾短语来引导对比。
1. Stability also contributes to the proliferation of fossil fuels in both industrial production and household application. A power station fuelled by coal is able to generate electricity constantly, whilst the production of a wind power station largely depends on the weather. Similarly, a household solar geyser can not work properly in rainy days when people will have to use gas water heater.
2. Teachers help students focus on what they are learning. If they are learning something by themselves, it is easy to become distracted and go on to other activities. Also, it is tempting to skip parts of the learning process they think they don’t need, which can hinder their ability to really understand the subject. By comparison, teachers keep their attention on the subject and also approach a subject logically, taking it one step at a time.
    在上述的个段落中,通过火力发电站和风力发电站的对比,突出化石能源较之可再生能源在能量提供的持续性上的优势。此外,作者继续用了第2个对比来进一步说明这个论点,在2个对比的使用中,请大家特别注意similarly这个连词的使用,在表示类比的时候我们经常会用到这个连词。而在第二个段落中,作者又通过有老师在和没有老师在学生学习的2种境况做了横向比较,从而突出老师对于学生学习的重要性。
    在对比论述法中,还有一种高级的论述方式,叫做“否定假设法”,这种论述手法使用的理论是假设某个条件不存在,会导致什么样的后果,一般用without来引导,主句中多使用虚拟语气。下面我们来看一个例子:
Many medical treatment and procedures have been developed from experiments on animals. Since animals share many features with humans, scientists use animals to test the safety and effectiveness of newly developed drugs before pilot testing on small groups of patients. Medical teams practice new operating techniques such as transplants on animals. Without animal testing, many procedures or new drugs would be extremely unsafe. 
    我们在使用这种发展手法时,一般是用在论述的最后,用来最后增强语气,其实我们只要将without换成with的话,否定假设法一下子就变成了肯定条件法,大家不妨可以举一反三。
四、列举论述法
    列举论述法用于列举观点、理由等,是五段式大作文主体段的主题句以及四段式大作文分论点常用的扩展方式。朗阁雅思培训中心将列举法常用的连接词总结如下:initially, apart from, in addition to, moreover, furthermore, also, in addition, besides, for one thing…for another, on the other hand等。此外,有时候我们还可以用诸如from a helicopter view来进行大类视角的切换,这种也属于列举,以下我们来看几个例子:
1. Homework has many pluses. Apart from helping students do better on tests, homework helps students review and practice what has been taught in class. Homework helps improve retention and understanding; furthermore, it helps students hone their time management and organizational skills.
请注意在使用apart from或者in addition to这2个连词的时候,一般后面接续次要观点,而将主要观点放在主句中。上面的例子中,帮助学生考试考出好成绩和帮助学生复习以及练习上课的知识点都是属于回家作业的优点,但是作者认为后者更重要,因此将前者放在了这个连词后面。这种用法我们在四段式大作文主体段中经常会用到,大家务必引起重视。
2. However, reaching the conclusion that other subjects are no longer important is biased, the obvious benefits of subjects like music and sports for students cannot be denied. For one thing, learning music can cultivate one’s temperament and foster patience and consistency which are both coveted traits for the students. For another, sports energizes students, hence, they are able to plough into their studies enthusiastically and with confidence.
在使用“一方面...另一方面”这个连词时,首先要注意的是必须同时使用,不能单独使用;其次,这个连词一般是用来连接论点的2个不同方面或者2个不同论点的相似方面。
3. From a helicopter view, in countries, particularly developing ones, the economic advances need numerous professional talents in the fields like finance, management, legislation, medicine, thereby putting universities in a pivotal position of nurturing these professionals.
在这段文字中,作者从”微观”,切换到了”宏观”,“宏观”一般指的是社会、国家等大范围,即所谓的大类视角切换,也同属于列举法的范畴,因此我们在用列举法发展段落时,同时要注意理由、观点的类别,在发展的时候要注意层次感,使用的连接词要准确。朗阁雅思培训中心一般建议在列举时从”小”写到”大”。
列举论述法在分析解决型大作文提供解决方案的主体段中经常会使用,下面我们来看一个例子:
4. I feel that there are three ways that crime can be reduced. Firstly, most developed countries have a large and well-paid police force. However, they spend most of the time in cars. They need to be more visible on the street. Secondly, young people need to be educated about how they can contribute to society. Finally, parents should be more responsible. They have children, yet they do not control their behaviors. Consequently, the children grow up without learning the rules of society.
五、让步法
    让步法主要有2个层面,一个是让步段,另一个是局部让步,前者目前使用的较多的是宾语从句引导,而后者可以用让步状语从句或者是转折的连词简单的引导。
5. Those against the use of animal testing claim that it is inhumane to use animal in experiments. I disagree completely. It would be much more inhumane to test new drugs on children or adults. Even if it were possible, it would also take much longer to see potential effects, because of the length of time we live compared to laboratory animals such as rats or rabbits.
这个让步段中作者还使用了2次让步法,即划线的最后一个句子,这种2次让步法在范文中是一个非常实用的论述手法,只要注意用虚拟语气表达即可。
 
 

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