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剖析大作文主体段扩展方式(上)

来源:朗阁教育14-06-24编辑:朗阁培训小编0人看过

雅思大作文段落扩展有很多方法,比如列举法、举例法、对比法、因果法、让步法、定义法、类比法等,但是在实际运用的时候很多考生的局限性很强,从而限制了分数的进一步提高。在接下来的章节里,朗阁雅思培训中心写作组的老师将会系统地总结目前雅思大作文主体段的主要扩展方式及各自的侧重点

朗阁雅思培训中心  诸瑞琪
    雅思大作文段落扩展有很多方法,比如列举法、举例法、对比法、因果法、让步法、定义法、类比法等,但是在实际运用的时候很多考生的局限性很强,从而限制了分数的进一步提高。在接下来的章节里,朗阁雅思培训中心写作组的将会系统地总结目前雅思大作文主体段的主要扩展方式及各自的侧重点:
一、举例法
    举例法主要用于通过摆事实引用数据等对论点加以说明,从而增加论证的说服力,同时也是增加段落字数的一种简单的方法。目前的大作文若一个例子都不举的话是很难得到的,而且单纯的说理会使得文章显得很“空”,举例子既是一种知识面的展示,更是写作功底的体现。我们在使用举例法时常用的连接词有:for example, for instance, such as, namely, take something for example, etc, 有时候我们还可以用一些句子来拖例子,比如This is true given the example of … ; 还能用一些副词来接续后面的例子,比如indeed, today, nowadays…等。但是目前比较主流的举例子是用宾语从句引导,比如A recent survey shows that…。以下我们来剖析一下举例法的实际应用。
1. Secondly, air transport is the biggest environment killer. A recent survey conducted by Chicago University shows that the plane air pollution is at least three times as the vehicle. With the increase of greenhouse effect, shouldn’t we improve our environment protection concept?
2. Firstly, the traffic jam caused by the increasing number of cars is a nightmare for all drivers. A recent survey reveals that Beijing citizens spend averagely about 65 minutes on road every day. Billions of dollars are being wasted on the road in many big cities all over the world, such as London, New York, Paris and Tokyo, but we could do nothing to change it till now.
    在这2个主体段的片段中,作者用宾语从句来引导例子,尤其在个例子中他还增加了调查问卷的来源,从而增加了一定的性和学术性。我们一般可以用一些高等学府,或者科研机构或杂志来作为这些研究调查问卷的来源。类似的用法我们还可以来看以下的例子:
The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution says bits of the country, notably southeast England, are under pressure on waste and water use. But simply aiming to reduce population size will have little impact, it says. This is the final report from the 40-year-old commission, which is being abolished under spending cuts. It is two-year investigation looked at issues such as water supplies, waste, urban pollution and wildlife.
The report, Demographic Change and the Environment, concludes that increasing consumption, the concentration of population in areas that are ill-equipped to supply its needs, and the trend towards single-person households - which increases energy demand - all matter more than the simple size of the UK''s population.
3. This is sometimes true given the examples of many gifted athletes who failed to win the finals, such as the football team of the Netherlands which was always regarded as the expected winner of the World Cup but often disappointed the world in the end. Lack team spirit and cohesion lead to the frequent failure of their games.
    在这个段落中,我们使用的这个主系表结构引导举例,这个句子的使用规则是将表语作为先行词,然后引导一个定语从句。
4. However, there are significant social, economic, and environmental drawbacks gained by purchasing imported food products. Examples of proposed environmental downsides include increased packaging, increased impact of transportation, higher livestock densities, etc.
    在这个段落中,我们使用的举例子结构是前一个结构的“缩写”形式,直接引导一个主谓宾的简单句,对于快速成文也是很有帮助的。

5. In many places, cultural traditions are destroyed because they are being commercialized for profits. For example, the moment a tourist sets foot on a place of attraction, he is always first welcomed by a crowd of peddlers selling souvenirs that are always fake and overpriced.
6. Furthermore, mass tourism is inevitably damaging the local environment. Take ` wild tourism` as an example, it has resulted in such many serious problems as rivers   or lakes being polluted, trees being cut down and animals lost their habitats and went extinct, etc.
    一般我们在使用举例法的时候,都是用主谓宾或者主系表的简单句作为基本的引导句型,然后根据后续是否还可以导出一个结论,灵活搭配定语从句或者是分词结构来扩展。
7. The mushroomed fast foods have very negative effects on societies. Since hundred years ago, the traditional foods have become one of the most important symbols of a culture. As we mentioning some countries, we can associate them with their famous foods, Peking duck of China, Sashimi of Japan, and Rome Pizza of Italy. But the international fast foods are occupying every corner of the whole world nowadays. In the near future, we can tell that all cultures will have a same famous food – McDonald’s. Such a normal kind of food is actually a culture aggression of most countries.
    我们在举例子时,还可以用表示时间的连词来引导例子,而不需要很机械式的用for instance之类的标准式的举例连词。
8. The UK needs to consume less and share people around the country more equally in order to tackle its environmental problems, a report recommends.
9. Academic subjects, such as reading and writing, play a vital role in the education system.
    在这个句子里,such as是部分举例,倘若遇到全部举例时,只需将连接词换成namely即可。
二、因果论述法
    因果法其实分为2个层面,一是先因后果,二是先果后因,2者皆属于因果法,此法也是所有论述手法中最主要的一种,也几乎是每篇文章必然会使用的方法。朗阁雅思培训中心总结了一些因果法常用的连接词如下:therefore, as a result, as a consequence, consequently, because of this, hence, thus, thereby, for this reason, result in, lead to, the cause of, the reason for, as a result of, owing to, due to, because, since, as, result from, boil down to, attribute to等。因果法尤其在“分析解决型”大作文中是主要的段落论述手法。
1. However, others who claim that users should pay for the cost find their origins in economics. For a variety of different reasons, many people buy larger cars than they need for daily purposes or waste fuel by driving aggressively, which results in both the increasing load of the road and the environmental pollution. If the users are charged to pay for the road geared to the size of the car they use, they might become wise to buy more environmentally friendly cars or choose public transport. Additionally, users might have the right to involve in designing roads in a more pragmatic way as a result of paying for the fees. That way, the financial burden of the government will be eased.
2. Many instances of juvenile delinquency have been attributed to the violent or pornographic content of some TV shows and video games. Now we are confronted with a proliferation of blood and nudity on TV, the computer and the Internet. As a consequence, many youngsters, especially boys, get addicted to such scenes. The increase of juvenile crime rate is symbiotically connected with the rise of adult crime rate in society. For instance, many youths are tempted by evil adults into committing crimes and others who are victims of adult offenses become criminals themselves because of their revenge on society.
    在第2个段落中,作者充分利用了因果法的技巧,从导致青少年犯罪的间接原因,最后得出直接原因,这种因果内的原因切换的技巧在分析解决型文章里是非常实用并且高效的。

 

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