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[雅思培训]雅思学术类小作文高端写法(三)

来源:朗阁教育14-08-10编辑:朗阁培训小编0人看过

雅思写作7分长久以来一直成为很多考生的写作瓶颈,其中固然有很多客观因素,但是根据笔者这些年带写作班的经验以及阅览无数考官撰写的范文后发现,其实写作从技术角度的确存在很多“高端”写法和使用时的“潜规则”。

    在上一个章节中,我们系统探讨了饼状图主体段的高端写作思路和句型发展方式。在本章节里,朗阁雅思培训中心写作组的将继续探讨柱状图主体段的思路和写法。
    有了前2章节的铺垫,大家会对柱状图的写法有了一定的认识,因为线图和饼图中很多句型及其发展方法都可以运用到柱状图里。我们在观察柱形图的时候首先要留意横轴的数据,若横轴为时间轴或者是年龄趋势,那么我们在主体段写作时候的基本思路就为从左到右;若横轴数据为具体专有名词诸如地点,交通工具等时,主体段的写作思路就可能是按照柱形的长度排列。笔者根据上述的分析做以下的总结:
一. 按照横轴从左到右排列数据:
1. 两根柱且趋势截然相反
    在这种写法中,我们要注意观察2根柱的上升/下降的幅度。以下我们就来看一个例子:
The charts below show the main reasons for study among students of different age groups and the amount of support they received from employers.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below.
You should write at least 150 words.
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
 
The first graph shows that there is a gradual decrease in study for career reasons with age. Nearly 80% of students under 26 years, study for their career. This percentage gradually declines by approximately15% every decade. Only 40% of 40-49yr olds and 18% of over 49yr olds studied for career reasons in late adulthood.
Conversely, the first graph also shows that study stemming from interest increases with age. There are only 10% of under 26yr olds studying out of interest. The percentage increases slowly till the beginning of the fourth decade, and increases dramatically in late adulthood. Nearly same number of 40-49yr olds study for career and interest. However 70% of over 49yr olds study for interest in comparison to 18% studying for career reasons in that age group.
    在幅柱状图中,我们可以看到,蓝色和红色的2根柱呈现出截然相反的变化趋势,因此,我们在排列数据时可以分别描述各自的上升/下降幅度,见划线个句子。这2根柱的变化幅度相对都是比较均匀的,我们在计算幅度时可以简单的将最大和最小值相减,然后除以区间数,就能得出大约的幅度,在描述时只要在幅度前加上表示大约的副词即可。从句型角度,我们可以选择主谓结构的简单句来实现对变化幅度的描写,见划线个句子。
接下来,我们在描述第2根柱形变化的时候,要特别注意选择的句型在逻辑关系上和根柱变化幅度间的联系,见划线第二个句子。
2. 三根以上柱形且多种趋势:
    应对这样的柱形图,我们可以先描写最长的那根柱的数据,也可以将最长的2根柱的数据放在一起描写。以下我们就来看一个例子:
The graph shows Internet Usage in Taiwan by Age Group, 1998-2000.
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
 
The graph shows changes in the age profile of Internet users in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000.
The main users of the Internet in Taiwan are young adults between 16 and 30 years old. In 1998, they accounted for more than half of all users. In 1999 the number dropped slightly to 45%, but even in 2000 they were the biggest group.
The second biggest group of users is aged between 31 and 50. They made up 41% in 1998, falling slightly to 37% in 2000. When combined with the 16-30 age group, over 94% of users in 1998 were between 16 and 50.
However this number is dropping steadily as more children and older users log on. In 1999, the number of children online quadrupled from 2% to 8%, and it continued to increase in 2000. There were similar increases for older users, rising from 4% in 1998 to 10% in 2000.
In summary, while adults between 16 and 50 still represent the great majority of Internet users in Taiwan, their share is declining as more children and older users join the web.
    在个主体段中,作者先从最长的红色柱形入手,见划线句子。然后在第二个主体段中继续描写蓝色柱形的数据。在句型选择上我们发现2段首句都使用了主系表的简单句,选择的主语也是类似,因此从角度来讲,我们可以将第2个主体段首句的主语换成原先的表语,即31岁至50岁年龄组,效果会更好。
此外,我们还可以从描写柱形的整体趋势作为突破口,如:
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The table below shows the figures for imprisonment in five countries between 1930 and 1980. Write a report for a university, lecturer describing the information shown below. You should write at least 150 words.
 
The bar graph shows that the figures for imprisonment in the five countries mentioned indicate no overall pattern of increase or decrease. In fact there is considerable fluctuation from country to country.
In Great Britain the numbers in prison have increased steadily from 30 000 in 1930 to 80,000 in 1980. On the other hand in Australia, and particularly in New Zealand the numbers fell markedly from 1930 to 1940. Since then they have increased gradually, apart from in 1980 when the numbers in prison in New Zealand fell by about 30,000 from the 1970 total. Canada is the only country in which the numbers in prison have decreased over the period 1930 to 1980, although there have been fluctuations in this trend. The figures for the United States indicate the greatest number of prisoners compared to the other four countries but population size needs to be taken into account in this analysis.
The prison population in the United States increased rapidly from 1970 to 1980 and this must be a worrying trend.
    从图中我们发现,每个国家的数据变化都是不同的,有升有降,没有一个有规律的总体趋势,这时候,我们可以用划线句子的写法在一开始就描述数据的总体情况。接下来再分国家逐一描述即可。
二. 横轴为地点,交通工具等其他专有名词:
    遇到这样的情况,不管柱形有几根,朗阁雅思培训中心建议考生都可以按照长度从长写到短,也可以先以描述总体趋势作为突破口,如以下这个图:
The graph above show information of employment rates across 6 countries in 1995 and 2005.
Summarize the information by choosing and describe the main idea, and make comparisons where appropriate.
 
 
The graph shows changes in employment rates in six countries between 1995 and 2005, for men and women. Overall more and more people of working age are employed, and there have been significant improvements for women, although they leg behind men in entering the workforce.
The most obvious trend in the graph is that women have lower employment rates in most of the countries in the graph. For example, in Australia in 1995, 57 percent of men could find work or retain a job, but only 27 percent of women. The difference was even bigger in New Zealand, with 60 percent of women. Even in Switzerland and Iceland, alightly more men than women were in the job market.
The second biggest trend in the graph is the improvement in employment between 1995 and 2005. In all countries shown, figures for both men and women improved. The biggest change was in the United Kingdom, from 55 percent of men in 1995 to 73 percent over the ten years period.
Furthermore, the increases in employment rates for women were much higher in New Zealand. The percentage of working women jumped from 25 percent to 42 percent, and in the United States from 45 percent to 61 percent over the decade.
In conclusion, all the countries in the graph showed at least a 12 percent increase in employment rates of both men and women over the ten yeares. While men had relatively higher employment rate throughout the period, more and more women appear to be entering the labour market.
    在这幅图里,经过观察,我们首先发现了一个总体趋势,即妇女就业率尽管总体仍旧低于男性,但是情况正在好转,所有国家的妇女就业率都有显著的上升。因此,我们可以抓住这个总趋势,在一上来就进行描写。见段的划线句子。但是经过进一步观察分析,我们又发现2

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