Often, locals of countries have antagonistic (adj. 敌对的;对抗性的) perceptions of foreigners visiting their country. Negative attitudes of resident communities (社区居民) towards international tourism are mainly from three concerns: economic, environmental, and social. Additionally, both the government and overseas visitors are confronted with (面临;面对) some challenges to change these views.
International tourism, for local residents (本地居民), does not always accomplish (完成;实现;达到) what it supposedly should (e.g. increasing employment). Jobs created by tourism are oftenseasonal (adj. 季节性的;周期性的) and poorly paid, yet tourism can push up (增加;提高) local property prices and the cost of goods and services. Money generated by tourism does not always benefit the local community (本地社区;当地居民), as some of it leaks out (漏出;泄漏) to huge international corporations (跨国企业) such as hotel chains (连锁酒店). Second, tourismposes a threat to (对…造成威胁) a region's natural and cultural resources, such as water supply, beaches, coral reefs, and heritage sites, through overuse (n. 过度使用). It also causes increased pollution through traffic emissions (n. 尾气排放), littering (n. 乱扔垃圾), increased sewage production (污水制造) and noise.
Another reason why foreign travellers are not often welcomed with open arms is visitor behaviour affecting the quality of life of the host community (原有居民). For example, crowding(n. 拥挤) and congestion (n. 堵塞), drug and alcohol problems, prostitution (n. 卖淫), and increased crime levels can occur. Tourism can even infringe on (侵犯) human rights, with locals being displaced from (从…移位) their land to make way for new hotels or barred from (不准) beaches. Interaction (n. 互动) with tourists can also lead to an erosion (n. 侵蚀;腐蚀) of traditional cultures and values. Additionally, cultural conflicts – no matter whether they ariseconsciously (adv. 有意识地) or not – can create tensions (n. 紧张) between locals and outsiders.
Sustainable tourism (可持续旅游业), which is the concept of visiting a place as a tourist and trying to make only a positive impact on the environment, society and economy, should be promoted to change the status quo (现状). A key aspect is respect for the people who call the location home, the culture and customs of the area, and the socio-economic system. For tourists, sharing their own culture with the locals and trying to promote tolerance (n. 宽容;忍让) between their culture and the local culture during the visit are encouraged. For the government, co-management system of resources between resident communities and government agencies is suggested to be developed and some policies should be formulated (vt. 制定) to involve the locals in the tourism industry so that financial gain (经济获益) from visiting tourists stays within the community. Local residents should also recognise that the tourism industry provides opportunities for small-scale business enterprises (小规模商企), which is especially important inrural communities (农村地区居民;农村社区), and generates extra tax revenues (产生额外税收收入), such as airport and hotel taxes, which can be used for schools, housing and hospitals.
In conclusion, international tourism can bring many economic and social benefits, particularly in rural areas and developing countries, but mass tourism (大众旅游) is also associated with negative effects. Tourism can only be sustainable if it is carefully managed so that potential negative effects on the host community and the environment are not permitted to outweigh (vt.比…重要;比…有价值) the financial benefits.