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[雅思培训]雅思写作中如何做到同义替换

来源:朗阁教育16-11-15编辑:朗阁小编0人看过

很多考生都想自己在一夜之间拥有超大词汇量,然而真的有那种既不需要很多的练习,还能够输出较好的词汇的方法吗?朗阁老师将在本文中给大家介绍同义转换法。

很多考生都想自己在一夜之间拥有超大词汇量,然而真的有那种既不需要很多的练习,还能够输出较好的词汇的方法吗?朗阁老师将在本文中给大家介绍同义转换法。这个方法能够帮助同学们在作文时尽量避免使用同样的词汇和句式,但是这个方法也需要在大家有了一定词汇积累的情况下才能使用,No pains, no gains. 本篇雅思培训将给大家介绍几种同义转换的方法。

 

一、同义异形词

写作当中的同义异形词主要就是考察学生的词汇量,主要靠大家通过联想记忆习得的高频词汇。大家在写作中最常出现的是第三人称的“人们”这个词汇,基本上每篇作文都要有主人公,一半以上都是普通大众,那么写作中大家是如何使用的呢?除了用“people”, 还使用其它词汇吗?

 

people = individuals = person = man = human = human being = masses = crowd = throng = mob = the general population

 

这些词汇都是“人们”的意思,只有轻微差别,如:masses(含褒义)是指ordinary people 大众;crowd(中性)是指a large group of people gathered close to one another;the mass of people, especially those considered to be drearily ordinary or anonymous也是大众,也有拥挤的人群的意思;Throng(文学)是指a crowd of people or animals; 而mob(贬义)就指暴民了,a large or disorderly crowd especially one bent on violent action。下面我们来体会一下这些同义词在写作中的不同的例子:

 

Example:

1.old buildings with historic importance serve as mementos of mementos events, famous persons (people), or national spirit.(建筑类话题)

2.Culture is a multiplied domain consisting of language, clothing, foods, customs and so on, for which mixed cultures in one county not only enlarge individual’s (people’s) vision, but also enrich their culture.(文化类话题)

3.With the upgrading of human beings’ (people’s) living standard, domestic products and native events can no longer meet their needs.(生活类话题)

4.Men (People) are not ready for the age of artificial intelligence.(科技类话题)

5.It is the government that should do anything to protect the interests of masses.(政府类话题)

6.Too much exposing of crime details increase the worry about the disquieting society among crowd.(犯罪类话题)

7.Reducing the working time was highly supported by the jubilant throng.(工作生活类)

8.Crimes are sometimes committed by people who are in poverty, not mobs.(犯罪类)

 

其次再举一个常用例子:“重要的”这个词也是大家在作文中经常使用到的一个高频词汇,基本上每篇文章都要扯到某某东西或者某某人很重要,那么大家一般除了使用”important”之外还使用什么词汇呢?

 

important = significant = critical = crucial = urgent = indispensable = essential = necessary = requisite = vital = momentous = noteworthy

 

这些同义词意思上也是有轻微差别的:

critical是指:having the potential to become disastrous; at a point of crisis至关重要到有可能变灾难

necessary是指:required to be done, achieved

urgent是指:requiring immediate action or attention

indispensable是指:absolutely necessary

essential是指:extremely important

requisite是指:made necessary by particular circumstance or regulations.(比较正式)

momentous是指:of utmost importance

 

Example:

1. Handwritings of a person are significant (important) for it makes letters precious and memorable.(科技类话题)

2. It is necessary (important) to come up with a remedy to make up for the damages we have done to the nature.(环境类话题)

3. Surveillance on students’ study, especially young children, is indispensable.(教育类话题)

4. Food is essential (important) for our human beings.(生活类话题)

5. The flood waters had not receded and the situation was still critical.(环境类话题)

6. It is most urgent that government should allocate enough money on medical care for dying patients.(政府类话题)

7. Company should pay the requisite fee, if it would like to participate on the scientific research the government launched.(科技类话题)

8. Whether the momentous decision was wise or foolish will be long debated by historians.(文化类话题)

 

以上是两个同义异形词的例子,当然雅思写作中有很多这样的高频词汇的同义异形词总结,非常常用,如:

 

1. example=instance=case=sample=illustration=specimen例子

2. explain=interpret=illustrate=clarity=account说明

3. famous=noted=prominent=outstanding=notorious=eminent=notable著名的

4. forecast=foretell=predict=foresee预示

5. harmony=agreement=concord=unity=accord和谐

6. infer=deduce=conclude=gather=judge推断

 

大家在准备同义异形词的时候首先要按照它们的意思分类,然后一定要注意它们之间细微的差别,这样才能保证写作既不会有重复的词汇又不会出差错。

 

二、上义词下义词 (superordinatesubordinate)

写作中除了直接的同义转换以外还有间接的同义转换,如上下义词汇之间的相互转换。那么什么叫上义词和下义词呢?在这里先做个解释:它们是指两个词语在语义上具有包含和被包含的关系,两者是具有从属关系的一组词。上义词指的是那些表示意义较概括的词,它们的词义包括了下义词的词义。如animal是sheep, tiger, wolf, dog等的上义词,或者tool是a hammer, a saw, a screwdriver的上义词,而rose是flower的下义词。sweeping是household chores的下义词,household chores是sweeping的上义词。上下义词之间的转换一个是在你词穷的时候给你填补的机会,多使用下义词还能够使你的文章看起来更加丰满,没有重复。这里列举几个题目来看看如何直接通过上下义词汇来拓展文章。

 

首先最常见的要数下义词,我们通过4道雅思真题来看下义词如何使用:

1. Some people believe that young people should be free to choose his or her job, while others think that they should be realistic and think about their future. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.(工作类,双边讨论题型)

 

看到job这个词,很多同学的反应是很多同义异形词,如vocation, profession, work, occupation, career等等,但是除了同义异形转换以外可不可以通过上下义词来转换呢?比如这个题目问的是:一些人认为年轻人应该自由选择他们的职业,另一些人认为他们应该实际一些考虑一下自己的未来,在这里可以想想年轻人可以选择的职业从形式上看包括哪些:full time, part time, temporary, odd jobs, seasonal, self-employment,再从内容上看包括:accountant会计;actor, actress演员;barber理发师;baker烘焙师;attendant服务员;cashier出纳员;chef厨师;computer programmer程序员;lawyer律师;librarian图书管理员;model模特儿等等,那么这个题目在拓展的时候就可以把job具体化,这样写出来的文章会词汇丰富,内容充实。

 

2. Some people think lawbreakers should be sent to prison, while other people think there are some alternatives (for example, doing work which is beneficial for local community). Discuss both views and give your own opinion.(犯罪类,双边讨论题型)

 

这个题目中的主语lawbreaker, 很多人一看到就想到一些同义异形词可以替换它,如:criminal, offender, culprit, bad man, outlaw, delinquent。这些必然是好,但是文章中如果仅仅是替换还是会觉得略显干涩。题目中的意思是一些人认为违法者应该被送进监狱,然而有些人认为有其它的方法如做一些有利于当地社区的工作。在这里,如果在拓展文章的时候适当的把lawbreaker给下义词话,也就是细节化,那么文章会饱满充实很多。lawbreaker的下义词又有哪些呢?以下可以一一列举:murderer, robber, burglar, thief, arsonist, swindler, smuggler, stowaways, rapist, vandals, shoplifter, kidnapper, assaulter, forger等等,这样文章的词汇立马高大

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