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雅思写作难题解析

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 18-03-26
  • 编辑:朗阁小编

雅思写作一直是听说读写四门当中最困难的一门,不仅仅因为评分标准很严格,雅思写作本身话题难易也有起伏,下面笔者就给大家逐一分析相对比较困难的雅思写作题。

雅思写作一直是听说读写四门当中最困难的一门,不仅仅因为评分标准很严格,雅思写作本身话题难易也有起伏,下面朗阁老师就给大家逐一分析相对比较困难的雅思写作题。

 

题一:

 

Today there is a great increase in anti-social behavior and lack of respect to others. What are the causes of this? What measures can be taken to reduce this problem?(当前,反社会行为和缺少对别人的尊重有一个上涨趋势,哪些因素导致这个问题产生,并且可以采取什么样的方式缓解这个问题)

 

类属话题:社会犯罪类

 

很多考生拿到这个题目之后,首先从结构上看是个并列,anti-social behavior 和lack of respect,这两个短语中,后者比较好理解,就是缺乏尊重,而后者anti-social behavior,考生可能会卡住,因为从字面意义上理解反社会行为离我们生活比较遥远,所以学生脑海中搜素不出相关的信号词和思路,大部分都只是能够想到的anti-social behavior是crime,而具体crime是什么又感觉语言缺乏的阐述不出来,所以类似这样的题目提前可以准备是最好的,那么我们看下到底老外认为的anti-social behavior是什么意思,具体内容又是什么?

 

From Wikipedia:(维基百科)

 

Anti-social behaviors are actions that harm or lack consideration for the well-being of others. Many people also label behavior which is deemed contrary to prevailing norms for social conduct as anti-social behavior. The term is especially used in British English。(反社会行为指的是损害或者缺乏考虑他人的幸福和健康,许多人也把这种行为认为是和当前的社会规范相反的一种行为,这个词英国本土使用较多)

 

From economist:(经济学人)

 

Antisocial behavior can generally be characterized as an overall lack of adherence to the social norms and standards that allow members of a society to co-exist peaceably. Many people who display this type of behavior may seem charming, but often cause harm to others and show little remorse for their actions. Antisocial behavior can be part of a larger conduct disorder, or personality disorder, such as antisocial personality disorder, and is seen in men more commonly than women. (同样定义的是和当前社会行为准则并不相符的,并且反社会行为的人表面上可能看起来无公害,实际上会危害到他人并且毫无悔改之意等等)

 

From online resources:(来源网络)

 

a person lacks empathy, which means the ability to understand the feelings of others, and does not care about how he or she makes others feel。(缺少同情心,不能理解他人感受等等)

 

总结:从定义上看,anti-social behavior含义很广泛,不仅仅是大家理解的犯罪,不关心别人,冷漠等,都是anti-social behavior的表现,包括题目中and链接的后半部分---对别人不尊重。所以大家如果开头或者中间段先把anti-social behavior定义一下,那么写文章时候就可以拓宽思路,想原因也可以宽泛一些。

 

除此之外,大家要注意:Anti-social is frequently used, incorrectly, to mean either "nonsocial" or "unsociable". The words are not synonyms。(在这考生们要注意同意互换时候不要换成意思完全不同的这两个词)。

 

然后我们具体看看维基百科以及英美本土人如何去总结和定义的Anti-social behavior具体内容的:

 

1.      children between ages 13–14 who bully or show aggressive behavior towards others exhibits anti-social behaviors in their early adulthood。(对于孩子来说,展现出来的反社会行为是欺负他人和攻击性行为)

 

2.      Children or adolescents with conduct disorder will typically show three or more of the following signs consistently in their personality traits:

       Behaves impulsively, thoughtlessly jeopardizing the safety of himself and others.

       Is manipulative, and lies or cons his way through situations.

       Does not follow rules, and enjoys breaking the law.

       Borrows money with no intention of repaying it.

       Steals.

       Is overly aggressive, often picking fights.

       Is willing to hurt others emotionally or physically without showing remorse.

       Is arrogant and overly confident.

       Likes to set fires.

       Is cruel to animals.

 

(表现的冲动,不危及自己和他人的安全,操纵,说谎或反对他的方式通过情况,不遵守规则,喜欢违法,借钱而不打算偿还,偷盗,过分好斗,经常打架,愿意在感情上或身体上伤害他人而不表现出自责,傲慢和过度自信,喜欢纵火,对动物残忍。)

 

3.      many different acts are classed as anti-social behavior such as, misuse of public space, disregard for community safety, disregard for personal well-being, acts directed at people, graffiti, protests, liquor offences and drunk driving。(这句话里面定义到的反社会行为也很细节,许多不同的行为被归类为反社会行为,如滥用公共空间、无视社区安全、漠视个人福祉、针对人的行为、涂鸦、抗议、酒后犯罪和酒后驾驶。)

 

4.      intentionally damaging or destroying someone else's property, receiving or selling stolen goods,attacking someone with the idea of hurting them.(故意破坏或者破坏他人财物,收受或者出卖赃物,以伤害他人的方式攻击他人的观点)

 

5.      Antisocial personality disorder is usually grouped with other, related personality disorders: borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic.(反社会人格障碍通常是由其他相关的人格障碍:边缘、表演型、自恋)

 

总结:一旦列出了以上反社会行为的细节,那么想原因就会较容易,并且有针对性,比如,孩子不守规矩可能是家庭教育问题,或者是现在学校管理不严格等等,而成年人的这些反社会行为可能和政府立法,立规,监管不严有关系。

 

当然,我们也可以参照老外总结的反社会行为的原因是什么:

 

1.      (和基因相关)When children exhibit this behavior, it's generally referred to as "conduct disorder.”Researchers have linked certain factors to conduct disorders in children, finding both environmental and genetic components. While the genetic factor is not yet well understood, some studies suggest that a specific variant of a gene that transports serotonin may be a possible predictor of antisocial behavior in children.(当孩子们表现出这种行为时,通常被称为“行为障碍”,研究人员将某些因素与儿童的疾病联系起来,寻找环境和遗传因素。虽然遗传因素还没有很好的理解,一些研究表明,转运血清素的基因的特定变体可能是儿童反社会行为的可能预测因子。)

 

2.      (与孩子的成长环境相关)Children with conduct disorders are often victims of abuse or have been exposed to environments where harsh punishments are common. Many of these children grew up with parents whose inconsistent behavior ranged from excessive leniency to excessive punishment. Such inconsistency can cause a child to not know how to react to a challenging situation, causing him to become angry and lash out when he doesn't get his way. The child of a parent with an antisocial personality disorder may learn through example that aggression and a disregard for the needs of others is normal behavior。(品行障碍的儿童往往是虐待的受害者,或接触到环境恶劣的惩罚是常见的。这些孩子中有许多是与父母一起长大的,他们的行为不一致,包括过分宽大和过度惩罚。这种不一致性会导致孩子不知道如何应对一个具有挑战性的情况,使他生气,并在他不按自己的意愿时生气。有反社会人格障碍的父母的孩子可以通过例子了解到,侵犯他人和忽视他人是正常行为。)

 

3.      (与暴力媒体相关or与父母教育相关)Many of the studies regarding the media's influence on anti-social behavior have been deemed inconclusive. There has been a correlation found between the number of TV hours watched and amounts of aggressive behavior(许多关于媒体对反社会行为影响的研究都被认为是非结论性的。在观看电视的时间和侵略行为的数量之间存在着相关性。)A study was conducted that observed the effects of violent and non-violent films on Belgian and American male juvenile delinquents. The results stated that aggression increased in some measures due to the violent films, although only in those who were naturally high in aggression. Violence, racism, sexism, and other anti-social acts are attributed to things such as genetic predisposition and violence in the home. Some reviews have found strong correlations between aggression and the viewing of violent media, while others find little evidence to support their case. The only unanimously accepted truth regarding anti-social behavior is that parental guidance carries an undoubtedly strong influence; providing children with brief negative evaluations of violent characters helps to reduce violent effects in the individual.(进行了一项研究,观察到的暴力与男性青少年暴力电影的相关。结果表明,暴力电影中的某些攻击行为有所增加,但仅限于那些天生攻击性强的人。暴力、种族主义、性别歧视和其他反社会行为都归因于家庭中的遗传倾向和暴力。一些评论发现,攻击性和暴力媒体的观看之间有很强的相关性,而另一些评论却没有证据支持他们的案例。关于反社会行为唯一一致公认的事实是,父母的指导无疑具有强大的影响力;为儿童提供简短的暴力人物的负面评价有助于减少个人的暴力影响。)

总结:英美人总结出来的原因主要是基因,家庭以及社会媒体,特别是社会媒体的有意无意的宣传,导致人们的反社会行为和言论。曾经有一篇文章专门说到tweeter上面大家大肆,恶语相向的评论被很多人所提倡认为是敢于说真话的表现,其实质就是一种反社会行为的传播。

 

当然维基百科也提出了解决方案:

 

1.      Prevention – This action uses community engagement, intelligence, training and development and the targeting of hotspots, attempting to prevent unacceptable behaviour from occurring.(这项行动利用社区参与、情报、培训和发展,并针对热点地区,试图防止不可接受的行为发生。其中community这个概念是我们不断强调雅思写作中需要出现的概念,就是英美人特有的社区邻里。)

 

2.      Response – A timely and effective response to antisocial behaviour is vital. Police provide ownership, leadership and coordination to apprehend offenders.(及时有效地应对反社会行为是至关重要的。警察为逮捕罪犯提供了所有权、领导权和协调能力。)

 

3.      Resolution – Identifying the underlying issues that cause anti-social behaviour are determined and resolved with the help of the community and offenders are successfully prosecuted(查明导致反社会行为的根本问题,在社区的帮助下确定和解决,并成功地起诉罪犯。)

 

总结:虽然写的比较抽象,但是可以看出老外还是从大家共同努力加上警力一起来解决,如果是我们去找解决方案,我们还可以针对原因来解决,比如基础教育方面可以加强等等。

 

此篇文章给大家介绍了一个相对比较抽象和遥远的话题,未完待续。

 

如果还有什么疑问,可以在线咨询我们的老师。

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