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从段落结构攻克Heading难关

来源:朗阁教育19-03-01编辑:cici0人看过

雅思阅读题型众多, 而List of Headings可以算得上是其中最具挑战性的题型之一。虽然从剑桥真题和以往考试回顾来看,List of Headings这一题型相较其他题型而言的 “出镜率”不算太高(在剑桥真题和2018全年的考试中的占比分别为8%和6%),但是对于一些想争取高分的考生来说,了解其题型特点和出题规则,掌握有效的方法仍然是非常有必要的。

雅思阅读题型众多, List of Headings可以算得上是其中最具挑战性的题型之一。虽然从剑桥真题和以往考试回顾来看,List of Headings这一题型相较其他题型而言的 “出镜率”不算太高(在剑桥真题和2018全年的考试中的占比分别为8%6%),但是对于一些想争取高分的考生来说,了解其题型特点和出题规则,掌握有效的方法仍然是非常有必要的。

 

想要攻克List of Headings,我们首先需要了解这一题型的基本特点和题目要求:(截图如下)

 

从段落结构攻克Heading难关

 

 

【题目要求】

题目中给出一个选项方框,选项是由罗马数字(iiiiiiiv)为编号的若干短语或词组。方框下方即为题干,通常是以英文字母为编号的单个段落(paragraph),或若干段落的组合(section)。考生需要在阅读文章后,给指定的某个自然段(或组合段落)选择相应的heading,即小标题。

 

【题型特点】

1.该题型的题目位于文章之前。这也是List of Headings和其他所有题型不同的一个显著特点,因此考生在做题前需要注意,避免当作前一篇文章的题目。

2.该题型是选考题(根据2018年统计数据,考到的概率约为35%,也就是说在一个月的四场考试中通常有一场考试会出现这一题型),通常出现在Passage 2Passage 3中。

3.每个选项最多只能用一次,不会重复选择。

4.选项数量往往大于文章段落的数量,(例如,5heading题通常会给出7-8个选项)也就是说会出现较多干扰选项,也就会增加做题时间和难度。

5. 某些题目会给出示例(如上图),考生在做题之前可以先将例子所在选项划去,看文章时可以不读例子所在的自然段(或组合段)。

 

了解以上题型特点和和出题规则之后,还需要熟悉这类题型的正确解题方法。List of Headings之所以让很多考生“望而却步”,有一个重要的原因在于许多考生没有掌握该题型的正确做题方法。阅读中的绝大部分题型属于“细节题”,考察的是考生“定位”和检索信息(scanning)的能力;而List of Headings是雅思阅读中的“主旨题”,考察的是考生快速浏览(skimming)判断段落主题句和归纳总结能力。因此,考生在完成List of Headings题的时候,不需要选择“定位词”,而是需要了解段落结构和运用skimming快速浏览较多的文本信息,抓准主旨。

 

由于雅思阅读文章多为科普性质的说明文和议论文,这就决定了文章的写作模式和段落结构相对固定。阅读文章中的段落大体可以分为有明显主题句(topic sentence)的段落和没有主题句的段落,其中有主题句的段落占的比重较大。主题句从逻辑上来看,本身就是对一个自然段的总结和概括,正好和heading(段落小标题)的作用和内容一致。因此,如果考生能够准确迅速地找到某一段落的主题句,就不难选出正确的heading

 

对于结构规则的段落,主题句(topic sentence)的位置通常有以下几种:

一、段落首句。

这是在“总-分”结构的段落中最为常见的一种情况,在涉及List of Headings的文章段落中比重超过50%。这是因为在很多西方的学术性文章中作者更倾向于采用演绎法(deductive)阐述思路,即先表达论点,再用论据加以说明。因此考生在阅读段落时需要注意,如果该自然段的第一句为概括性的句子,而第二句开始为细节或具体论述(如举例子,阐述原因等)则可判断首句即为段落主题句。在做题过程中,考生往往比较难单凭第一句判断出段落结构,因此建议快速浏览段落前几个句子,如果看到了举例或具体阐述原因等的句子,可以反推该段的结构为“总-分”。常见的表示举例的词汇有examplecasefor examplefor instance,或者直接出现表示具体时间、地点、事件的词汇。常见的阐述原因的词汇表达有the reason whyexplanationfactorcause等。

 

?例如:C6T2P1中的1Paragraph A

In fact, Newman believes the main reason for adopting one sort of transport over another is politics: 'The more democratic the process, the more public transport is favored.' He considers Portland, Oregon, a perfect example of this. Some years ago, federal money was granted to build a new road. However, local pressure groups forced a referendum over whether to spend the money on light rail instead. The rail proposal won and the railway worked spectacularly well. In the years that have followed, more and more rail systems have been put in, dramatically changing the nature of the city. Newman notes that Portland has about the same population as Perth and had a similar population density at the time.

 

通过该段我们可以看出,第一句是某专家的一个观点,之后的第二句提到了一个具体的例子a perfect example of this,因此,我们可以判断该自然段是“总-分”结构,并且首句就是段落主题句。其意思是“决定采取何种交通方式的主要原因是政治因素,即决策过程越民主,就有越多的公共交通得到青睐”,在选项中我们可以得出与之一致的是ii A successful exercise in people power 人民群众力量的成功实践。对于比较抽象的heading或者是对首句意思把握不准确的考生还可以迅速浏览后面的具体例证或阐述,来帮助更确切地理解主题句的含义。需要注意的是,在浏览细节的过程中重点关注句子的主干,不要浪费过多的时间去精读每一个细节。

 

?例如:C9T1P2中的14Paragraph B

In discussing whether we are alone, most SETI scientists adopt two ground rules. First, UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects) are generally ignored since most scientists don’t consider the evidence for them to be strong enough to bear serious consideration (although it is also important to keep an open mind in case any really convincing evidence emerges in the future). Second, we make a very conservative assumption that we are looking for a life form that is pretty well like us, since if it differs radically from us we may well not recognise it as a life form, quite apart from whether we are able to communicate with it. In other words, the life form we are looking for may well have two green heads and seven fingers, but it will nevertheless resemble us in that it should communicate with its fellows, be interested in the Universe, live on a planet orbiting a star like our Sun, and perhaps most restrictively, have a chemistry, like us, based on carbon and water.

 

通过段落后面的firstsecond我们可以很快判断出本段的结构和主题句。再结合选项我们不难看出,段首句In discussing whether we are alone, most SETI scientists adopt two ground rules.和选项iv Assumptions underlying the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence是一致的,因此答案为iv

 

?例如:C7T1P2中的15Paragraph C

Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world's population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water; some two and a half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve these problems.

 

通过浏览前两句可以看出,第二句话举了一个具体的例子,即2001年的UN联合国报告,因此首句是该自然段的主题句。本题的难点在于,通过主题句我们只能得出的大意是在讲对人口带来的负面的影响,而选项i-xi中没有与这层意思相对应的。具体是怎样的影响首句中没有体现,这个时候就需要进一步地浏览后面的例子。通过浏览例句中的主干成分我们可以看出主要是在讲lack access to clean drinking water缺乏干净的饮用水和water-related diseases相关疾病问题,然后可以通过排除法选到vii The relevance to health这一选项。

 

二、段落首、二句。

    这样的段落仍然属于“总-分”结构,因此其主题句也是在段落前面,只不过除了首句,第二句也是概括段落大意的句子,甚至很多时候第二句的意思比第一句更为重要。这主要是因为:(1)第一句往往是过渡句,在段落中起到承上启下的作用,常常通过指代词来体现;(2)第一、二句之间存在转折或对比的逻辑关系,因此考生需要熟悉掌握常考的表转折和对比的逻辑连接词,如,thoughalthoughdespitein spite ofbuthoweverwhile等;(3)第二句为隐含转折,通过具有否定含义的词,反驳了第一句中的观点。

 

?例如:C6T2P1中的5Paragraph E

It was once assumed that improvements in telecommunications would lead to more dispersal in the population as people were no longer forced into cities. However, the ISTP team's research demonstrates that the population and job density of cities rose or remained constant in the 1980s after decades of decline. The explanation for this seems to be that it is valuable to place people working in related fields together. 'The new world will largely depend on human creativity, and creativity flourishes where people come together face-to-face.'

 

在转折逻辑关系中,“但是”之后的信息就是该自然段的主要内容所在。因此我们通过这一自然段可以看出首句和第二句之间存在转折,且第二句是“但是”对应的内容。“曾经有人提出假设,由于人们不再被迫住在城区,电信的发展将促使人口更加分散。然而,ISTP研究研究小组的调查显示,继几十年的下降后,城市人口和工作分布密度都保持不变或呈上升趋势。”因此,本段的主题句为第二句。而很多考生很容易看了首句就根据telecommunications这一信息选到干扰项vi The impact of telecommunications on population distribution。为了避免这类情况发生,建议考生在浏览自然段的时候顺带读一下第二句,防止因为看漏转折之后的信息而误选到干扰项。

 

?例如:C6T2P1中的3Paragraph C

There is a widespread belief that increasing wealth encourages people to live farther out where cars are the only viable transport. The example of European cities refutes that. They are often wealthier than their American counterparts but have not generated the same level of car use. In Stockholm, car use has actually fallen in recent years as the city has become larger and wealthier. A new study makes this point even more starkly. Developing cities in Asia, such as Jakarta and Bangkok, make more use of the car than wealthy Asian cities such as Tokyo and Singapore. In cities that developed later, the World Bank and Asian Development Bank discouraged the building of public transport and people have been forced to rely on cars –creating the massive traffic jams that characterize those cities.

 

本段的情况和上一题很相似,考生往往看了第一句话之后就试图匆忙地在选项中寻找意思匹配的,殊不知第二句refute一词在逻辑上其实是对前句的间接转折和否定。因此,我们可以推断,或继续浏览之后的细节得出:财富的增长并没有促使人们住到更远的地方,因为第二句说“很多欧洲城市的例子反驳了这一观点”。所以正确答案是iv Higher income need not mean more cars

 

三、段落末句。“分-总”结构也是在学术论文中会出现的一种情况,如果作者采用的是归纳法(inductive)的阐述思路,则该段落的主题句常会出现在最后一句。这种结构的段落往往会在前部列出论据、原因、例证,之后再总结核心观点。尤其是当某段落末句出现了类似于overallin a wordthusthereforeas a consequence/result之类总结性的表达,因为这些句子很有可能是对前文的一种概括,句中的词也是经常会在heading当中出现的。

 

?例如:C7T3P2中的16Section C

An important project, led by the biological anthropologist Robert Williams   focused on the variants (called Gm allotypes) of one particular protein - immunoglobin G - found in the fluid portion of human blood. All proteins ‘drift’, or produce variants, over the generations, and members of an interbreeding human population will share a set of such variants. Thus, by comparing the Gm allotypes of two different populations (e.g. two Indian tribes), one can establish their genetic 'distance', which itself can be calibrated to give an indication of the length of time since these populations last interbred.

 

本段开头就是一个细节,举例某专家进行的研究调查。而我们浏览之后发现段末的thus”一词引出了结论:通过比较两类不同的人群就可以建立其间的“遗传距离”。因此,我们可以判断本段属于“分-总”结构,主题句就是末句,然后再去选项中找出与之匹配的x How analysis of blood-variants measures the closeness of the relationship between different populations

 

四、段落由若干细节或例子组成,无明显主题句或主题句信息过于抽象。对于没有明显主题句的段落,就需要考生具备一定的总结和归纳能力。这类段落中通常会出现一系列的细节或事例,考生需要快速浏览多个细节,然后再选项中选择一个具有概括性、能够涵盖不同细节的heading。同理,如果考生找到了段落主题句,但是由于信息的局限或者自身词汇的欠缺而导致理解障碍,同样可以借助其他细节和例子进行归纳和总结。需要特别注意的是,考生在快速浏览细节的过程中很容易把主旨和细节混淆起来,而误选到了内容与段落某细节一致的选项。

 

?例如:C7T1P2中的16Paragraph D

The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes - often with little warning or compensation - to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20 % of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers* are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.

 

本段其实在结构上仍然是规则的“总-分”段落,只是很多考生对于首句,即主题句的理解不够准确,而只是因为该句中出现了“health”和“policy”就选择了出现原词的vii The relevance to healthi Scientists' call for a revision of policy两个干扰项。对于这样的考生,建议可以在找到主题句后迅速浏览具体细节,然后就会发现之后的细节分别提到了peoplefreshwater fishirrigationgroundwater显然是和health”、“policy”不同的。因此,考生可以通过排除选项,选择一个在意思上可以概括以上各个细节的,即v    Environmental effects

 

五、组合段落。对于若干个段落组合的情况(C5T4P1 1-3题),通常可以通过快速浏览该section包含的每个段落的段首,分别找到其主题句,再进行主题句的归纳整合。因为这类段落处理起来比较花费时间,所以建议考生在考试中可以先完成其他的题目,然后再利用做题过程中读过的部分信息来帮助我们更快地选出整个section的主旨大意。

 

    除了了解段落结构和主题句的位置,考生还应该避开List of Headings中常常出现的“陷阱”。其中之一就是,段落主题句中含有转折或让步关系,那么该自然段的heading应该“但是”之后的信息,而在选项中经常会出现一个与“虽然”一致的表达,考生往往就会误选。另一个常见“陷阱”就是考生没有注意辨别段落中的主题句和细节句,仅仅因为某一选项的信息与原文一致就误以为是正确答案,殊不知这也是常见的干扰项。

 


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