朗阁首页 > 雅思阅读 > 雅思阅读中的因果逻辑考察

雅思阅读中的因果逻辑考察

来源:朗阁教育19-03-01编辑:cici0人看过

在雅思阅读中,无论是每场必考题型是非题,填空题,还是难倒众多考生的heading题和matching题中,我们都不难发现因果逻辑考点。阅读中常见的逻辑有因果,平行和转折,而转折出现在大部分的考题中一般来说都是以比较形式存在的。在本篇文章中,笔者将会讨论不同的考题中因果逻辑考点是如何体现的,也会对相关的考题给出备考应试建议。

在雅思阅读中,无论是每场必考题型是非题,填空题,还是难倒众多考生的heading题和matching题中,我们都不难发现因果逻辑考点。阅读中常见的逻辑有因果,平行和转折,而转折出现在大部分的考题中一般来说都是以比较形式存在的。在本篇文章中,笔者将会讨论不同的考题中因果逻辑考点是如何体现的,也会对相关的考题给出备考应试建议。


雅思阅读中的因果逻辑考察



首先我们需要了解因果逻辑除了常见的because, so, therefore,诸如此类的表达之外,还存在一些广义上的因果逻辑。很多能够体现相关性的动词或者动词短语或者是介词短语都能够表达这层逻辑。而这一部分往往是考生容易忽略的。 举例来说,effect ,relevanceaffect,  depend on, reflect 这一类的词虽然从字面翻译,与因果逻辑没有关联,但是在阅读中却会与因果表达产生替换。

一:heading

Heading 题做题中,如果能够熟练地转换常见的因果表达,可以大大提高我们的阅读速度和正确率。

Example 1(c7t1p2 D段):

“The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardizing human health. ”

这句话节选自D段首句,我们从extend beyond,包括C段的与human health相关联的内容中可以得知,这段话的中心思想是围绕我们的用水政策所产生的影响展开的。那么consequence 这个单词在list of heading中对应的有两处。一:environmental effects the relevance to health. 而在下文中扫读,会发现集中出现名词例如freshwater fish species , free –flowing river ecosystems, soil quality , water resources ”二选一,可以锁定答案是environmental effects.

Example 2(C6T4P3第33题):

The writer thinks that the declaration “ there is no bullying at this school”

A is no longer true in many schools

B was not in fact made by many schools

C reflected the school’s lack of concern

D reflected a lack of knowledge and resources.

审题发现选项CD都有reflect,如果能够知道reflect有相关性的考察,那么回到原文定位的时候很快能够发现在D段第三行出现定位的前面,有表示因果的短语“ as a consequences” 选择题选项在reflect后面,所以考察的是原因。原文中原因对应在as a consequence 前面,不难做出来,选项D中的” a lack of knowledge and resources “是原文” not much was known about the topic. And little help was available to teachers to deal with bullying .”的同意转换。

 

二:选择题

在选择题中,因果关系的考察也会变成目的题的形式,用短语in order to来表示。选择题中的目的题做题时,可以从三个方面来考虑,句间的关系,句子与段落之间的关系,段落与段落的关系。段落与全文的关系这方面考察还是比较少的。我们来看一下例子。

Example1c7t1p329题)

In this passage , the author uses the examples of a book and a lecture to illustrate that

A both of these are important for developing concentrations

B his theory about methods of learning is valid.

C reading is a better technique for learning and listening

D we can remember things more easily under hypnosis.

这道选择题从题干可以看出是在考察目的,回到原文中定位的时候,,发现都是用if引导的表示假设的句子,所以是在考察论点和论据之间的关联。那么举例都是为了来论证论点,所以考生只需要往前找作者的论点是什么。会发现在这段话的首句有“ Lozanov’s instructional technique is based on the evidence that the connections made in the brain through unconscious processing which he calls non-specific mental reactivity are more durable than those made through conscious processing . 可以知晓,作者举出例子是为了支持Lonzanov的指导性方法。所以答案选择B. 表述是 his theory about methods of learning is valid.

Example 2(C 12Test735)

Why does the writer refer to Meyer’s work on music and emotions?

A to propose an original theory about the subject

B to offer support for the findings of the Montreal study

C to recommend the need for further research into the subject

D to present a view which opposes the of the Montreal researchers.

题干中问到作者为什么要提及Meyer’s work on music and emotions , 根据大写字母定位到原文第五段,整句说的是to demonstrate this psychological principle, the musicologist Leonard Meyer, in his classic book Emotion and Meaning in Music (1956), analyzed the 5th movement of…….所以可以得知选项定位在前半句话, to demonstrate this psychological principle, 而this用于指代前文内容,所以要定位到全文第4段,第4段首句one way to answer the question is to look at the music and not the neurons. 从上下文可以得知,neurons指的是Montreal研究的内容,所以全文第四段与Montreal 之间是反驳关系,那么也就是说第5段和Montreal 之间是否定关系。所以答案选oppose表述反对。

 

三:ending匹配题

ending匹配中,因果考察出现频率也非常高。在类似的ending匹配,或者人名地名,年份匹配题目中,我们在原文中定位到出题句子之后,需要留心前后是否有出现因果逻辑。

Example1c6t2s111题):

原文Perth 定位到第二段。 Perth is a good example of a city with minimal public transport. As a result.,17% of its wealth went into transport costs. 句子中出现as a result ,替换成F项中的due to .这时候可以把due to 前后的成分回到原文一一对应,我们会发现inefficient 对应了minimal,而limited 则对应了后文的17%。

Example 2:( c6t2p329)

特殊词定位到原文第4段第4行开始” By the seventh century, the word teon had become interchangeable with the tachund or hund of the Anglo-Saxon language, and so 100 was denoted as hund teontig, or ten times ten. The average person in the seventh century in Europe was not as familiar with numbers as we are today. In fact, to qualify as a witness in a court of law a man had to be able to count to nine.这句话中出现了因果逻辑to qualify” 把这个词组前后的词进行替换之后,能够得出答案是A was necessary in order to fulfil a civic role.

同学们平时练习的时候,需要有意识的判断句子的逻辑,对于做题速度和正确率会有很大的帮助。


朗阁小编推荐:

剑桥雅思阅读 难句解析(5)

7.21雅思考试阅读 考题回顾

单词+长句,全面攻克雅思阅读

考试又改革?来这里看第一手考试动态
复习没思路?来这里看独家干货
考前还在转发锦鲤?这里有资深编辑押题预测!加我!加我!免费获取资料

30 天热搜